Unit 5 - Absolute Monarchies and European Enlightenment (2022)

This unit examines how nations turned to absolute monarchies in Spain, France, and Russia. It also shows how the English Parliament resisted the formation of an absolute monarchy in the 17th century. Lastly, the unit will show how the European Enlightenment challenged the philosophy of absolutism.

Unit 5 Calendar

Monday, November 4:
  • Main Focus:Introduction of Unit 5: Absolute Rulers in Spain
  • Unit 5 - Absolutism to Enlightenment Review Guide
  • Quick Check:Review of motives and consequences of European exploration
  • Introduction to Spanish Absolutism: Notes on Charles I and Philip II (Completion Notes) See also:Chapter 4.1 (142-146) "Spanish Absolutism"
  • Spanish Armada Video Clip
  • Introduce the Absolute Superhero Project (Due 11/21)
  • Ticket-to-Exit:How did Philip II attempt to increase the power and prestige of Spain in the 16th century? Name at least three ways.

Tuesday, November 5:
  • Main Focus:The Spanish Armada and Queen Elizabeth
  • Quick Check:Fill in the blank exercise using the following terms
    • Dutch Revolt, William the Silent, Treaty of Nonsuch, Philip II,Sir Francis Drake, El Greco, Miguel Cervantes, Siglo de Oro
  • Visual Analysis / Discussion:Elizabeth I, Armada Portrait
  • Jigsaw:Queen Elizabeth I's Speech to the Troops at Tilbury and Queen Elizabeth I's Spy Network.
  • Ticket to Exit:What do you see as most important about Elizabeth I's leadership and character?

Wednesday, November 6:
  • Essay Test:Write an essay about exploration, 40 points.

Thursday, November 7 - Friday, November 8:
  • Absolute Superhero Research Time (lab 2221)
  • Absolute Superhero Project(50 pts)

Monday, November 11 (Veterans Day):

(Video) Absolute Monarchy: Crash Course European History #13

  • Main Focus:French Absolutism
  • Quick Check: Treaty of Nonsuch, Babington Plot, "Protestant Winds", Sir Francis Drake, Sir Francis Wallsingham
  • Notes:Introduction to King Henry of Navarre and the French Wars of Religion. St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre and Edict of Nantes.
  • Homework:Joannie Fischer, “Cardinal Knowledge: A Network of Spies …” U.S. News & Report, Feb. 2003. p. 51. Who was Cardinal Richelieu? How did he strengthen the French Monarchy?Due 11/12

Tuesday, November 12:

  • Main Focus:French Absolutism: Cardinal Richelieu
  • Quick Check: Who was Henry IV? How did he bring an end to religious strife in France?
  • Visual Analysis: Cardinal Richelieu Portraits. Use the homework reading to provide the biographical background to Cardinal Richelieu.
  • Read and Discuss:Richelieu, “Political Will and Testament.” p. 202-203. What advice does Cardinal Richelieu give to monarchs? How does his advice compare to the views of Machiavelli?
  • Ticket to Exit: How did Richelieu lay the foundation for French Absolutism?

Wednesday, November 13:

  • Main Focus:French Absolutism: Louis XIV
  • Quick Check: What are 3 pieces of advice that Richelieu gives to monarchs?
  • Examine Quote by Beninge Bossuet about Absolutism.
  • Introductory Notes on Louis XIV (Seep. 148-152 Ellis Textbook) and an excerpt fromSaint-Simon, “Memoires: The Aristocracy Undermined in France.” p. 217. (Sherman Textbook)
  • Examine "A Day in the Life of the Sun King."Create a comic strip depicting the day to day schedule of Louis XIVDue Thursday, 11/14

Thursday, November 14:

  • Main Focus:French Absolutism: Louis XIV
  • Quick Check: How did Louis XIV undermine the nobility? Give 3 examples.
  • Share Comic Strips "A Day In the Life of the Sun King"
  • Primary Source Round Robin Discussion:Primary Source Evaluations of Louis XIV Worksheet.
  • Ticket-to-Exit: Based on the primary-source documents, what where Louis XIV's strengths? weaknesses?

Friday, November 15:

  • Quiz French and Spanish Absolutism
  • Absolute Superhero Work Time (lab 2221)

Monday, November 18:

  • Main Focus:English Absolutism: Divine Right
  • Notes:James I of England
  • Quick Check: What is divine absolutism? How did Louis XIV use this to justify his rule?
  • Read and discuss: James I, "The Powers of the Monarch in England." p. 203 Who was James I? How does James justify the powers of the monarch? What is the strength of his argument? How do you think Parliament would respond to this speech?
  • Ticket to Exit: Write a potential response to King James by England's Parliament. Include counter arguments to key arguments contained in Jame I's speech.

Tuesday, November 19:

(Video) Unit 5: Absolutism and the Enlightenment

  • Main Focus: English Absolutism: Thomas Hobbes
  • IntroduceThomas Hobbes: Picture Analysis on page 207-208 (Sherman)
  • Notes:Charles I through James IISee p154-160. "English Absolutism" Charles I, English Civil War and the Restoration.
  • Ticket to Exit: Who is Thomas Hobbes? What were his views on government?

Wednesday, November 20:

  • Main Focus:English Absolutism: The Glorious Revolution
  • Quick Check: Fill in the blank: Charles I, Oliver Cromwell, Roundheads, Cavaliers, Charles II, James II
  • Read and Discuss: English Bill of Rights. p. 162 (Ellis Book)
  • Introduce and discuss the enlightened ideas of John Locke (See page 187 Ellis
  • Ticket to Exit Activity: Identify 5 limits on government's power (or rights retained by the people) Draw representations of each.

Thursday, November 21:

  • Main Focus: Absolute SuperHero Project DueAbsolute Superhero Project(50 pts)
  • Share Absolute Superhero Projects
  • Review Activity: Create an illustrated timeline of the Stuart Monarchs, including the ideas of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke

Friday, November 22:

  • Main Focus:Absolutism in Russia
  • Quiz #2: English Absolutism (10 points)
  • Notes:Absolutism in Russia - Peter the Great. (Seep. 168-173)
  • Read and Discuss:Feofan Prokopovich, “The Great Czar.” (Handout)

Monday, November 25 - November 29: Thanksgiving Break

Monday, December 2:

  • Main Focus: Introduction to the Enlightenment
  • Monty Python's "Dennis the Peasant."
  • Notes:Origins of the Enlightenment / Enlightenment Defined.
  • Read and Discuss:Immanuel Kant, “What is Enlightenment?” p. 40 (Sherman)

Tuesday, December 3:

(Video) AP Euro Unit 5 Overview

  • Jigsaw:"The Philosophes" p. 184-186 (World History Textbook): Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau, Wollstonecraft, Adam Smith.

Wednesday, December 4:
Visual Analysis: Salon Portrait
Notes:
How did Enlightenment Ideas Spread." See alsoChapter 5.2 (World History Textbook) "Enlightenment Ideas Spread." p. 188-193.
Enlightened Despots: Read and Discuss: Frederick II, "Excerpt from the Forms of Government" AND Joseph II (Green Sherman Textbook)
Ticket to Exit: Write a paragraph that compares and contrasts the views of James I to Frederick II with respect to the role of monarch.Thursday, December 5:

Notes: American Revolution Background (See Chapter 5.3 Ellis)
Activity: Note how the Enlightenment is reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence, Constitution and Bill of Rights.

Friday, December 6:
Review Activity: Identify each philosophe, his/her key beliefs and create a visual/sketch

Monday, December 9:
Enlightenment Quiz (may have absolute rulers)

Tuesday, December 10 - 13: Final Review DaysMonday, December 16: Finals Week

Unit 5 Resources:

SirKEY NOTES:

(Video) Enlightened Despots: Video Lesson

  • Absolute Monarchies and Enlightenment Notes

HAND OUTS:

  • Unit 5 - Absolutism to Enlightenment Review Guide
  • Louis XIV and the Rise of Absolutism Jigsaw and Seminar Guide Sheet.
  • English Monarchies Guided Notes Sheet
  • English Bill of Rights (1689) / American Bill of Rights (1791)
  • Peter the Great Reading Guide
  • Unit 5 Review Activity
  • Enlightenment Notes
  • Enlightenment Quotes from Selected Authors

READINGS:Unit 5 - Absolutism to Enlightenment Review Guide

  1. Ellis and Esler. World History: The Modern Era. Chapter 4 (Pages 140-174.); Chapter 5 (Pages 180-204)
  2. Morris, Holly J. “Be Afraid, Very Afraid.” US News & World Report. Jan. 27-Feb 3. 2003. p. 50.
    1. How did Elizabeth strengthen her power? What role did Sir Francis Walsingham play during Elizabeth’s reign? What was the Babington plot?
  3. Elizabeth I. “Speech to the Troops at Tilbury.” 11 Nov. 2008.
    1. What is the historical context behind this speech? What does it reveal about Queen Elizabeth’s character?
  4. Visual: Queen Elizabeth I. The Armada Portrait.
    1. What is revealed about Queen Elizabeth and her authority by this portrait? What is the importance of fine art in the development of absolute monarchies?
  5. Richelieu, “Political Will and Testament.” p. 202-03 (Sherman)
    1. Who was Cardinal Richelieu? How did he strengthen the French Monarchy? What advice does Cardinal Richelieu give to monarchs? How does his advice compare to the views of Machiavelli?
  6. Saint-Simon, “Memoires: The Aristocracy Undermined in France.” p. 217. (Sherman)
    1. How did the activities of King Louis XIV undermine the position of the nobility? What options were available for a noble who wanted to maintain or increase his own power?
  7. “An Evaluation of Louis XIV: Primary Sources” (Handout)
    1. How do these views contrast with Louis XIV’s descriptions of his life at Versailles and his manner of ruling? What were his strengths? Weaknesses?
  8. James I, “The Powers of the Monarch in England.” p. 203 (Sherman)
    1. How did James I justify the high position and vast powers he felt should rightly belong to kings? What limits are there to monarchial power? How would England’s Parliament respond to James I’s arguments?
  9. Thomas Hobbes, “Leviathan: Political Order and Political Theory.” p. 207-08 (Sherman)
    1. Why would men form such a commonwealth and why would they give up such power to the sovereign (ruler)? How does Hobbes’ argument compare with that of James I? Why might both those favoring more power for the House of Commons and those favoring increased monarchial power might criticize this argument?
  10. John Locke, “Two Treatise of Government.” In Ellis and Esler. World History: The Modern Era. (p. 187)
    1. According to Locke, how should a land be governed? Why do you think this is the case? What does Locke say can happen if a government fails to protect the rights of its people? How does Locke’s views compare with that of Hobbes?
  11. The 1689 Bill of Rights – England in Ellis and Esler. World History: The Modern Era. p. 162
    1. What is the meaning of item 6 and why do you think it was included in the Bill of Rights? Why do you think the members of Parliament included item 9? Why do you think this item might have been important? How does this document compare with the US Bill of Rights which comes later?
  12. Viewpoints: Empress Maria Theresa (Handout)
    1. What character traits of Maria Theresa do both historians see as valuable? In general, what do both historians see as the effects of Maria Theresa’s reign for the Hapsburg monarchy?
  13. Frederick II (1740-1786): Essay on the Forms of Government (Handout)
    1. What is the role of the sovereign according to Frederick II? How does his views of government contrast with those of James I or Louis XIV? How are his views influenced by the Enlightenment?
  14. Immanuel Kant, “What is Enlightenment?” p. 40 (Sherman Volume II – Green cover)
    1. How does Kant define Enlightenment? What is requisite for people to become enlightened? To what extent does he consider his own era a time of enlightenment?

VIDEO RESOURCES:

  • Days that Changed the World: The Spanish Armada-BBC Documentary Clip (12 min)

TERMS:
In addition to knowing the definition of the following terms (who, what, where, when), know the why it is important to the story of this unit? How are the terms related or connected to the bigger story?

Ch 4.1 (142-146)
Absolutism
Divine Right of Kings
Philip II of Spain
Elizabeth I
Battle of Lepanto
Sir Francis Drake
Treaty of Nonsuch
Babington Plot
“Protestant Winds”
Spanish Armada
Siglo de Oro
Miguel Cervantes
El Greco

Ch 4.2 (148-152)
Huguenots
Henry IV (Henry of Navarre)
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
Edict of Nantes
Cardinal Richelieu
La Fronde
Louis XIV
Beninge Bossuet
“I am the State.”
Cardinal Mazarin
Versailles
Jean-Baptiste Colbert

(Video) Unit 5 Revolutions 5 1 the Enlightenment

Ch 4.3 (154-160)
James I
Charles I
Oliver Cromwell
New Model Army
Petition of Right
Roundheads
Cavaliers
English Civil War
Thomas Hobbes
Charles II & James II
William III and Mary II
Glorious Revolution
English Bill of Rights

Ch 4.5 (168-173)
Peter the Great
St. Petersburg
Table of Ranks

Chapter 5 (Pages 180-204
Philosophe
Natural Law
Immanuel Kant
Thomas Hobbes
John Locke
Natural Rights
Social Contract
Denis Diderot
Voltaire
Mary Wollstonecraft
Mary Astell
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Baron de Montesquieu
Cesare Beccaria
Adam Smith
Laissez-Faire
Encyclopedia
Salons
Enlightened Despots
Frederick II – The Great
Joseph II
George III
Stamp Act
George Washington
Popular Sovereignty
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Paine
James Madison
Benjamin Franklin

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:

  1. ​What is absolutism? Was absolute monarchy an effective system? Was divine right of kings a valid basis for rule? (Chapter 4 p.141-175; Documents E, G, H, I, J, M, N)
  2. How did Philip II extend Spain’s power and help establish a golden age? How is the struggle between Spain and England during the 16th century tied to religion? What contributed to the decline of Spain as a world power? (Chapter 4.1 p141-146 Documents B, C, D)
  3. Why is Louis XIV considered by many historians to be the model absolute ruler of the seventeenth century? List the ways Louis consolidated and grew the power his monarchy? Which way was most effective? What policies had unintended consequences that weakened France? (Chapter 4.2 p148-152, Documents F, G)
  4. Identify and discuss the causes, participants, and outcome of the English Civil War. (Chapter 4.3 p154-162, Documents H, I, J, K)
  5. How and why did Russia emerge as a great power? Contrast Peter the Great to Louis XIV. (Chapter 4.5 p168-173)
  6. What is the Enlightenment? Based on the ideas of the thinkers, what are the natural rights of the people? Whose role is it to secure those rights? What is the role of government? How did the ideas of the Enlightenment spread? (Chapter 5.1-5.2 181-193, Documents J, N)
  7. Describe how beliefs about people and government during the Enlightenment are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence, Constitution, and Bill of Rights. (Chapter 5.3 p195-201, 204)

FAQs

How did the Enlightenment impact absolute monarchies in Europe? ›

This furthered the power of a monarch because it ensured that the king or queen did not get their power from the people, and therefore the people had not control or say over the monarchs rule. The Enlightenment and its ideals of liberty greatly impacted the ability of absolute monarchs to continue to rule as they had.

How did absolute monarchs respond to the Enlightenment? ›

The monarchs of enlightened absolutism strengthened their authority by improving the lives of their subjects. The monarch's taking responsibility for his subjects precluded their political participation.

Did the enlightenment challenge the rule of absolute monarchs? ›

It marked the final shift of power from the monarch to Parliament. An 18th century European movement in which thinkers challenged the practices of hereditary privilege and absolutism and attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society.

What are the 5 absolute monarchs? ›

Absolute monarchies include Brunei, Eswatini, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Vatican City, and the individual emirates composing the United Arab Emirates, which itself is a federation of such monarchies – a federal monarchy.

What did the Enlightenment thinkers think of an absolute monarchy? ›

Opposition to Absolute Monarchy: Intellectuals such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke introduced the idea that no ruler should have unlimited power. Both argued that leaders derived their authority not from God but from the people.

What were the 3 major ideas of the Enlightenment? ›

What were the 3 major ideas of the Enlightenment? Reason, individualism and skepticism were three major ideas that came out of the Enlightenment. One person who espoused all three of these values was the French philosopher, Voltaire.

How did the ideas of absolute monarchy conflict with the ideas of Enlightenment? ›

After all, the main idea of absolutism is that the monarch has absolute control over what happens in their state. Enlightenment philosophy stated that each individual had natural rights and that the responsibility of the government was to protect and reaffirm those rights.

How did monarchs try to stop the spread of Enlightenment ideas? ›

They would set up large royal courts. These were an extended royal household, including all those who regularly attend to the monarch and royal family. Monarchs would do this in order to appear more powerful and to control the nobility. They also regulated religion to control the spread of ideas.

Which monarch was the most enlightened? ›

Joseph II, along with Catherine the Great and Frederick the Great, have been deemed the three most influential Enlightenment Absolutist monarchs.

What caused the Enlightenment in Europe? ›

The causes of the Enlightenment include the focus on humanism during the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, and the Scientific Revolution. These three ideas and events led to new ways of thinking and gave the Enlightenment the momentum needed to influence individuals worldwide.

How is an absolute monarchy differ from the ideas of the Enlightenment thinkers? ›

For absolutism, the monarch had more or absolute powers which were unlimited by right. The powers were also not subject to any legislation. Enlightenment, on the other hand, was based around the idea of using reason and experience instead of superstition, religion, and tradition.

Why was the Enlightenment a threat to European kings and queens? ›

People were beginning to doubt the existence of a God who could predestine human beings to eternal damnation and empower a tyrant for a king.

Who was the best absolute monarch? ›

King Louis XIV of France was considered the best example of absolute monarchy.

Why is absolute monarchy important? ›

An absolute monarchy creates a defensive force that protects their country from harm that is as strong as possible. This is done to protect the family, which also protects the general population at the same time.

What factors led to absolute monarchies? ›

What led to the rise of Absolute Rulers?
  • Decline of feudalism and growth of cities / middle class – monarchs promised peace and growth.
  • Monarchs used colonial wealth during the Age of Exploration to pay for their ambitions.
  • Church authority weakened – monarchs could gain additional power.

How did the Enlightenment change the way people viewed their relationship to their rulers? ›

The Enlightenment Ideas In The Age Of The Enlightenment

Locke rejected the absolute monarchy governments and called for a democracy to give the people more freedom and equality. His beliefs influenced many countries in the present and the future, including the United States.

Why did some European monarchs try to adopt Enlightenment ideals? ›

Enlightened despots believed that royal power did not come through divine right but rather from a social compact that granted a despot the authority to rule in place of all other governments. They were motivated by that of the ideas of Enlightenment period.

Who has the power in an absolute monarchy? ›

Absolute Monarchy was a Government with a sovereign leader who came into power by marriage or offspring; they had complete control with no limitations from constitution or law. They were considered the head of state and head of Government.

What are the 5 main ideas of the Enlightenment? ›

At least six ideas came to punctuate American Enlightenment thinking: deism, liberalism, republicanism, conservatism, toleration and scientific progress. Many of these were shared with European Enlightenment thinkers, but in some instances took a uniquely American form.

What are the 5 values of Enlightenment? ›

The five core values of the Enlightenment were: happiness, reason, nature, progress, and liberty. Using logical thinking and reasoning the philosophers analyzed truth in the world.

What are the 5 characteristics of the Enlightenment? ›

Terms in this set (5)
  • Reason. Enlightened thinkers believed truth could be discovered through reason or logical thinking.
  • Nature. philosophies believed that what was natural was good and reasonable.
  • Happiness. ...
  • Progress. ...
  • Liberty.

What caused the rise of absolute monarchs in Europe? ›

Before the time of the all-powerful monarchs, Europe had decentralized governments. Invasions by Vikings and other “barbarian” groups created fear amongst the population. This created a perfect environment for all-powerful leaders to rise.

What events led to the rise of absolute monarchies in Europe? ›

What led to the rise of Absolute Rulers?
  • Decline of feudalism and growth of cities / middle class – monarchs promised peace and growth.
  • Monarchs used colonial wealth during the Age of Exploration to pay for their ambitions.
  • Church authority weakened – monarchs could gain additional power.

What led to the rise of absolute monarchs in Europe? ›

There are several reasons behind the rise of absolutism namely, decline of feudalism, religious wars, especially Thirty Years War, growth of middle class and the taxation system resulted from the climate change that affected Europeans' life and economy too negatively by causing to suffering and deprivation.

How did the ideas of absolute monarchy conflict with the ideas of enlightenment? ›

After all, the main idea of absolutism is that the monarch has absolute control over what happens in their state. Enlightenment philosophy stated that each individual had natural rights and that the responsibility of the government was to protect and reaffirm those rights.

What are 3 characteristics of an absolute monarch? ›

Match
  • Ruler holds unlimited power. ...
  • Individuals owe their loyalty to the crown. ...
  • Ruler encourages industry and trade to increase income. ...
  • Controls taxes. ...
  • Ruler dominates the upper classes. ...
  • Shows off their power/looks, expensive, precious materials.

What are two characteristics of absolute monarchs? ›

With this distinction, an absolute monarchy can be characterized more specifically. The king or dictator within an absolute monarchy system has complete centralized authority over foreign and domestic policies. An "absolute" monarch does not share their power with any other governing body.

How did absolute monarchy start? ›

The most commonly studied form of absolutism is absolute monarchy, which originated in early modern Europe and was based on the strong individual leaders of the new nation-states that were created at the breakup of the medieval order.

Why is absolute monarchy important? ›

An absolute monarchy creates a defensive force that protects their country from harm that is as strong as possible. This is done to protect the family, which also protects the general population at the same time.

When did absolute monarchy start? ›

The Age of Absolutism was the period around the 17th and 18th centuries when Europe (kind of) was ruled by very powerful monarchs. Monarchs with absolute control. Thus, the Age of Absolutism. Absolute monarchs were rulers who held all the power in a country.

What were the aims of an absolute monarch? ›

Their goal was to control every aspect of society. Absolute monarchs believed in divine right, the idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God's representative on earth. An absolute monarch answered only to God, not to his or her subjects.

When did absolute monarchy end in Europe? ›

Republicanism became more prevalent in the Early Modern period, but monarchy remained predominant in Europe during the 19th century. Since the end of World War I, however, most European monarchies have been abolished.

What statement best describes absolute monarchies in Europe? ›

Absolute rulers have no checks on their power.

Who has the power in an absolute monarchy? ›

Absolute Monarchy was a Government with a sovereign leader who came into power by marriage or offspring; they had complete control with no limitations from constitution or law. They were considered the head of state and head of Government.

How do the ideas of the Enlightenment differ from the system of absolute monarchy? ›

For absolutism, the monarch had more or absolute powers which were unlimited by right. The powers were also not subject to any legislation. Enlightenment, on the other hand, was based around the idea of using reason and experience instead of superstition, religion, and tradition.

Why was the Enlightenment a threat to European kings and queens? ›

People were beginning to doubt the existence of a God who could predestine human beings to eternal damnation and empower a tyrant for a king.

Why did some European monarchs try to adopt Enlightenment ideals? ›

Enlightened despots believed that royal power did not come through divine right but rather from a social compact that granted a despot the authority to rule in place of all other governments. They were motivated by that of the ideas of Enlightenment period.

Videos

1. Enlightened Monarchs: Crash Course European History #19
(CrashCourse)
2. AP World History: 5.1 The Enlightenment
(Jason Rupertus)
3. New Monarchies: AP Euro Bit by Bit #9
(AP Euro Bit by Bit with Paul Sargent)
4. Unit 5 Lesson 1 Absolutism in Europe
(Mrs. A. Martinez)
5. Unit 5 Video 3: Enlightenment In Action
(Mr. Dolson)
6. Absolutism, Enlightenment & the Age of Revolutions
(Michael Martirone)

Top Articles

You might also like

Latest Posts

Article information

Author: Roderick King

Last Updated: 10/09/2022

Views: 6253

Rating: 4 / 5 (71 voted)

Reviews: 94% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Roderick King

Birthday: 1997-10-09

Address: 3782 Madge Knoll, East Dudley, MA 63913

Phone: +2521695290067

Job: Customer Sales Coordinator

Hobby: Gunsmithing, Embroidery, Parkour, Kitesurfing, Rock climbing, Sand art, Beekeeping

Introduction: My name is Roderick King, I am a cute, splendid, excited, perfect, gentle, funny, vivacious person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.